LESSONSENTENCE TRANSFORMATION ( Biến đổi câu)
1/ 1 khoảng TG + ago. S + started /began + Ving / to V1… + (prep.+) mốc TG
V3 for + khoảng TG( S + has / have + + been +Ving since + mốc TG
Ex: We started studying English half an hour ago. ( We’ve been studying English for half an hour.
2a/ 1 khoảng TG + ago. The last time + S + V2 + … was + (prep.+) mốc TG
for + khoảng TG( S + has / have not + V3 ….. + since + mốc TG
Ex: The last time she had a swim was five years ago. ( She has not had a swim for five years.
( S + has / have not + V3 ….. + since + S + V2
Ex: I last went to the football match when I was a student. ( I haven’t gone to the football match since I was a student.
3/ S + has / have not + V3 ….. + for + 01 khoảng TG
( It + is + 1 khoảng TG + since + S + V2
Ex: She hasn’t had a swim for five years. ( It is five years since she had a swim.
4/ S + has /have + never/not + V 3 … (+before)
( This / it is the first time + (that) + S + has /have + ever + V 3 …
Ex: I’ve never visited Paris before.( This is the first time (that) I’ve (ever) visited Paris.
( After + S + had + V3 … , S + V2 …
Ex: I had breakfast and then went to school. ( After I had had breakfast, I went to school.
6/ The formal subject “IT”: Ving / To V1 … + be + adj. /n (+for O)
( IT + be + adj. / n (+for O) + To V1…
Ex: Knowing English is useful. ( It is useful to know English.
7/ The formal object “IT”: Ving / To V1 … + be + adj. /n
( S + V* + IT + adj. / n + to V1…
V* : find, make, think. consider, believe, feel,…Ex: Living in the city is exciting. ( Some people find it exciting to live in the city.
8/ be accustomed to = be used to + V ingbecome accustomed to = get used to
Ex: We often go to school by bus. (We are used to going to school by bus.
Ex: My grandfather often played tennis when he was young. ( My grandfather used to play tennis when he was young.
10/ S + spend(s) / spent + time + V ing
( It + takes / took (+ O) + time + To V1
Ex: We spent five hours getting to London. (It took us five hours to get to London.
Ex: We can’t drive because of fog. (The fog prevents us from driving.
12/ Inversion: Đảo ngữAdv* + V + S …
Adv*: No longer, Never, Rarely, Seldom, Only, No sooner, Hardly ….
Ex: She no longer gets up early. ( No longer does she get up early.13/ Who + do /does + S + belong to?( Who own(s) …….?( Whose + V + S … ?( Whose + n + V + S …. ?
Ex: Who does this bicycle belong to? ( Who owns this bicycle?( Whose is this bicycle?( Whose bicycle is this?14/ Causative Form:
O (Người) +V1 ( Chủ động)S +