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1- Reduce stress2- Reduce risk of diabetes and high blood pressure3- Increase muscle tones4- Strong heart and big lungs5- See the world through different eyes6- No noise pollution7- Money in your pocket not in fuel tank8- Avoid traffic jams9- Shape your body10 – Park everywhere
Bicycles have been around for a very long time. In fact, bicycles have been around for so long that it is a very common tradition, especially in Vietnam, that one of the first skills that a young child is taught along with his or her ABCs is how to ride a bicycle. As we get older, most people often lose interest in cycling. The thought of riding a bike becomes mere nostalgia of times when we were younger. However, if you stop to think about it, there are many benefits to riding a bicycle.
The health benefits of riding a bicycle are tremendous. A daily or weekly regular exercise regime is hard to maintain because of the lifestyles that we may have. Not, if we are to travel via bicycle, this can double as exercise. Depending on how fast we go, we may be able to get a great cardio workout. If we cycle uphill and off-road, we may also be able to squeeze in some fitness training and strengthening our leg muscles.
There are also financial benefits to riding bicycles. In this day and age, pas prices are on the rise and they continue to be priced higher and higher seemingly every single week.
Sometimes the price of gas can be so financially taxing to people who are on a budget that they have no other choice but to seek a cheaper alternative. Well, one great alternative is cycling.
Go green by cycling! Because bicycles require no gas, they are eco-friendly. They do not cause pollution to be blown into the air nor do they release harmful toxins that may potentially cause health problems.
All in all, riding bicycles has physical, financial, and eco benefits. These reasons for cycling are great, and the benefits can make us happier and healthier.
Chúng mình cùng bổ sung thêm các lợi ích của việc đi xe đạp với BEC nào :))
THÔNG TIN LIÊN HỆ
Trung tâm Bright Education CentreSố 57, ngõ 295 Bạch Mai, quận Hai Bà Trưng, Hà NộiHotline – Ms Thao – 0987.905.529Website: www.bec.edu.vnEmail: email@example.com
Artichoke Leaf Extract Uses, Benefits, Dosages Side Effects
The artichoke has a long history of use as both a food source and medicine. In the past, the leaf of this plant was used in traditional medicines as a digestive aid, pain reliever, and remedy for urinary stones.
Italian merchants first brought artichoke to the United States in the 1880s. Scientists in France began studying its possible health benefits in the early 1900s. [ 2, 3]
Artichoke leaf extracts are used for stimulating bile flow from the liver and normalizing fatty acid levels in the blood. This supplement is also sometimes used for indigestion, nausea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and alcohol hangovers. [ 5]
The leaf contains two active compounds cynarin and chlorogenic acid. Thee compounds exhibit diuretic, liver-protective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cholesterol-normalizing effects.
This article will discuss traditional and current uses of artichoke leaf supplements, possible health benefits, dosages, side effects and safety reviews.
Artichoke Plant Description
The globe artichoke plant (Cynara scolymus) is hardy and large. It grows up to 5 feet tall and 3 feet in diameter. It is a thistle from the Asteraceae plant family. [ 3]
Artichoke plants are hermaphroditic meaning they have both female and male sex organs. This plant is pollinated by bees, butterflies, and moths. It is noted for attracting various fauna. [ 3]
Artichoke plants prefer direct sunlight and cannot grow in fully-shaded areas. It is suited well for moist clay (heavy), loamy (medium), and sandy (light) soils of any pH level (neutral, acidic, and alkaline). [ 3]
The plant grow best in habitats like woodlands, grasslands, and gardens that receive ample sunshine. It can also thrive in cultivated beds. [ 3]
The flowers, stems and leaves of artichoke are eaten as foods in numerous parts of the world. [ 3]
It is considered invasive in many regions because it develops dense colonies that disrupt the vegetation that was there before it. This can affect the health of wildlife, and livestock that live in a given region. [ 4]
Some taxonomists say that globe artichoke (Cynarascolymus) and cardoon (artichoke thistle, Cynaracardunculus) are the same species. These two species hybridize readily; meaning they can successfully and easily interbreed. [ 4]
How Does Artichoke Leaf Work?
Artichoke is one of the oldest known plants used as medicine. Both the flower and the leaves contain various active compounds including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and sesquiterpene lactones. [ 5]
According to Plants For A Future (PFAF) the phenolic acid cynarin is the bioactive chemical constituent that is primarily responsible for the therapeutic effects of the leaf extract. [ 3]
Cynarin is a produced as an ester of two units of caffeic acid and one of quinic acid. Cynarin is one of various hydroxycinnamic acids. [ 3]
Cynarin and chlorogenic acid in artichoke leaf are used in manufacturing food additives like sweeteners and flavorings. They work by blocking activities in taste receptors making water and other foods and beverages taste sweeter than they are. [ 3]
Cynarin is also a constituent of a prescription drug used for hepatitis and liver disease called Sulfad. [ 3] This drug is also used to control fatty liver disease and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH).
Artichoke also contains a yellow crystalline flavonoid called luteolin, which acts as a selective PDE-4 inhibitor and raises levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
Apigenin and related compounds
Caffeoylquinic acids including caffeic acid and others
Inulin (when fiber is not removed)
Luteolin 7-O-rutinoside, Luteolin 7-O-glucoside, and Luteolin 7-O-glucuronide
Plant sterols including beta-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol 
Artichoke leaf is also a source of potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, iron, sodium, and calcium.
It also contain various vitamins including A (retinol), B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine), B9 (folate), C (ascorbic acid), E (alpha tocopherol) and K (phylloquinone).
The concentrations of these active ingredients vary depending on where the plant is grown, soil conditions, genotype, cultivar, and growing season. [ 2]
Luteolin and its derivatives, and caffeoylquinic acids are the most prevalent bioactive compounds found in artichoke leaf. [ 2]
According to chúng tôi “Luteolin compounds collectively range from 24.6-73.8g/kg, or 2.5-7.4% (variance depending on cultivar) and most being 7-O-glucoside. Total caffeoylquinic acids range from 3139.02-7270.11mg/kg (0.3-0.7%).” [ 2]’
Luteolin has been observed in in vitro (cultured cell) studies to have cholesterol synthesis-reducing effects. Similarly, cynarin and chlorogenic acid may have cholesterol-lowering effects. [ 5]
Inulin in artichoke leaf is reported to be an effective prebiotic, helping to promote the growth of probiotic bacterial species. Probiotic bacteria promote gastrointestinal health, digestive function and immunity.
NMCD states that this supplement exhibits “a long-lasting bifidogenic effect.” [ 5] This means that it enhances the growth of Bifidobacterium, which are beneficial bacterial colonies that tend to colonize the lower gastrointestinal tract.
According to the gastroenterologist Dr. Frank Jackson, “While probiotics introduce good bacteria into the gut, prebiotics act as a fertilizer for the good bacteria that’s already there. They help your good bacteria grow, improving the good-to-bad bacteria ratio.” [ 6]
Luteolin, cynarin, cynaroside, and chlorogenic acid have recently been shown to affect vascular endothelial activities. In-vitro (cultured cell) studies suggest that these compounds may be able to increase nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. [ 5]
Multiple in vitro studies have isolated antioxidant compounds in globe artichoke leaf. Ten different preclinical studies have confirmed antioxidant activity of this supplement. [ 5]
Additionally, at least five in vitro studies have confirmed an antioxidant-related hepatoprotective effect of artichoke leaf. These studies used rat hepatocytes, monocytes, and endothelial cells.
A single in vivo (in live organisms) study in rats supported these findings. [ 5]
Further, one in-vitro study showed artichoke leaf to slow down the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. [ 5]
Effects on Cholesterol
Both in vitro and animal studies have found that isolated components from this plant might be able to improve blood lipid balance. This has been attributed to reductions in levels of fatty acids like triglycerides and cholesterol. [ 5]
Some animal research suggests that artichoke leaf might prevent the development of atherosclerotic plaques. These plaques are known to contribute to artery blockage, decreased blood delivery and cardiovascular disease. [ 5]
Artichoke extract exhibits antioxidant effects that inhibit LDL cholesterol oxidation and slow down cholesterol production. These are believed to be keys mechanisms for improving lipid balance. [ 5]
So far, the cholesterol-lowering effects of artichoke have been observed in rat studies and not in human subjects. According to NMCD, rats make poor models for mimicking human cholesterol synthesis. [ 5]
In a recent small human study, frozen artichoke 20 mL/day did not induce any significant effects on cholesterol levels. However, serum triglycerides were reported to increase in the treatment group by 5.7%. [ 5]
Choleretic (Bile Secretion) Effects
Bile is a dark green/yellow/brown fluid that helps the body to process lipids (fats) inside the small intestine.
In vitro evidence suggests that artichoke leaf might stimulate the secretion of bile from the liver. However, this has only been noted in rat livers, and cultured liver cells, not in humans. [ 5]
Some research suggests that artichoke leaf is helpful for improving dyspepsia (indigestion). This effect is attributed to reducing intrahepatic (inner-liver) cholesterol concentrations. [ 5]
In vitro and laboratory animal studies suggest that artichoke leaf extract might have a role in inducing vasodilation. [ 5]
The process of vasodilation results from smooth muscle relaxation and causes subsequent expansion of blood vessels. This allows blood to be pumped through the cardiovascular system with less work from the heart muscle.
In vitro evidence also suggests that artichoke might protect cardiovascular health by affecting the modulation of the eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) gene and by increasing synthesis of NO (nitric oxide) a known vasodilator. [ 5]
Artichoke leaf has long been used to promote liver health and to protect against damage caused by environmental toxins.
The African Pharmacopoeia indicates that this herbal extract can protect against liver dysfunction, support regeneration of the liver and enhance overall liver function.
The NMCD states, “In vitro studies report that cynarin and artichoke extracts provide antihepatotoxic and other hepatoprotective properties against a variety of toxins.” [ 5]
It is thought that the antioxidant properties of various compounds in artichoke may play a role in its liver-protective effects. [ 5]
Artichoke Leaf Uses
Artichoke has been used medicinally since the time of ancient Greece and Rome. It was regarded as a digestive aid and was reserved for only the rich and elite in society.
Under traditional European medicine system, it was prescribed as a diuretic and a choleretic to stimulate bile secretions and flow. In the 1950’s, cynarin extract from the plant was marketed as a pharmaceutical drug to treat high cholesterol levels.
The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (NMCD) reports that people use artichoke leaf supplements orally for a variety of purposes including:
Gallstones (cholelithiasis) and kidney stones (nephrolithiasis)
Hepatic (liver) dysfunction
Hyperlipidemia (high blood fat levels)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Normalizing blood glucose levels
Swelling/pain from fluid retention (edema) 
Artichoke leaf supplements are also sometimes used for anemia, arthritis, cystitis, and renal (kidney) insufficiency.
It is also used as a diuretic to increase urinary output, as a choleretic to increase bile flow, as a stimulant, and as a general health tonic. [ 5]
Because of its cynarin content, it is hypothesized that artichoke leaf may have:
Anticholesterolemic effects (lowers cholesterol)
Antirheumatic effects (reduces pain and swelling)
Cholagogic effects (stimulates bile flow from liver)
Digestive effects (improves digestion of foods)
Diuretic effects (increases urine production)
Hypoglycaemic effects (lowers blood glucose)
Lithontriptic effects(dissolves bladder/kidney stones) 
Artichoke Leaf Health Benefits
Many of the purported health benefits of this supplement are linked to its effects on digestion, blood lipid regulation and bile flow.
The NMCD has rated Artichoke as Possibly Effective for dyspepsia and hyperlipidemia.
There have been some promising results from studies using artichoke leaf extract for hypertension (high blood pressure) and IBS. These studies are limited, and more research is needed to determine the therapeutic efficacy for these and other conditions.
Artichoke leaf is regulated as a dietary supplement, and the FDA has not approved it as a drug to prevent or treat any conditions.
Artichoke and Dyspepsia
According to the NMCD, artichoke leaf seems to significantly alleviate dyspepsia conditions including nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and vomiting in clinical trials.
These improvements have been noted in patients with functional dyspepsia, and dyspepsia stemming from biliary disease (disease causing bile abnormalities). [ 5]
Based on multiple research trials, it has been seen that it takes between 2-8 weeks of using artichoke leaf to see improvements in dyspepsia symptoms. [ 5]
The two specific products that have been used for dyspepsia in most studies are called ALE LI 220 and Cynara SL. [ 5]
Other research has examined the effects of artichoke leaf together with ginger for improving symptoms of dyspepsia.
The NMCD reports that one study found that taking a product that contained both compounds daily for four weeks, “markedly or completely improves symptoms such as nausea, fullness, pain, and bloating in about 1.5-fold more patients with functional dyspepsia compared to placebo.” [ 5]
More research is needed to fully determine the therapeutic efficacy of artichoke leaf for dyspepsia.
If you are interested in taking this supplement it is recommended that you speak with your doctor of gastroenterologist to determine if it is right for your needs.
Hyperlipidemia and Cholesterol
Some human research shows that using an artichoke leaf extract called Valverde Artischocke reduces LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol measurements.
This product has also been shown to improve the balance between LDL cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol over a 6-12-week period. [ 5]
However, in another study, using 320 mg of an extract called Hepar-SL forte, three times daily for 12 weeks did not affect cholesterol levels significantly. [ 5]
Some research suggests that artichoke leaf may work better for reducing cholesterol in those with high cholesterol levels relative to those with healthy cholesterol levels. [ 5]
Other studies suggest that using 20 mg cynarin, three times daily for 7 months reduces triglycerides by 24% and total cholesterol by 31%.
These reductions were based on baseline comparisons in patients with either high serum cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) and/or high serum triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia). [ 5]
Higher doses of cynarin have been shown to induce similar effects. In other research studies, cynarin did not significantly decrease cholesterol in patients with hypercholesterolemia. [ 5]
Preliminary clinical evidence suggests that consuming 20-30 ml frozen artichoke, daily for 6-12 weeks does not reduce cholesterol in those with hyperlipidemia. Some evidence suggests that frozen artichoke juice might even cause serum triglycerides to increase. [ 5]
More research is needed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of artichoke leaf for normalizing blood lipid levels.
It is recommended that you speak with your doctor before beginning to take this supplement if you have a history of high cholesterol levels.
Artichoke Leaf Supplements
Artichoke leaf supplements come in a few different formats including capsules, tablets, bulk powder, and liquid drops. Most supplements contain between 500-800 mg of extract per dosage.
The NMCD states that there are more than 1100 different dietary supplements that contain artichoke either as a single ingredient or in combination with other compounds.
Look for products that explicitly state that they contain artichoke leaf, as this is the part of the pant that contains the most bioactive compounds, including cynarin and luteolin. [ 5]
When possible, choose organic and non-genetically modified supplements without fillers or additives. Make sure they have been verified by a reputable third party to contain what they claim to and are free of contaminants.
Artichoke Leaf Dosage
The American Botanical Council reports the following dosages for artichoke which have common use in herbalism, and are believed to be generally safe for healthy people:
6 grams dried, cut leaves daily for general health purposes
0.5-gram single daily dose of 12:1 dry extract
2 mL fluid extract, three times daily
6 mL 1:5 tincture, three times daily 
The NMCD reports that some dosages used in scientific studies include:
Dyspepsia: 320-640 mg three times per day for up to 8 weeks
Hyperlipidemia: 500-1920 mg per day in divided doses for 6-12 weeks
Hyperlipidemia : 20 mg of cynarin three times per day for 7 months
Hypertension: 50 mg or 100 mg juice concentrate per day for 12 weeks
Irritable bowel syndrome: 320-640 mg per day for 2 months 
When used as a dietary supplement, most products contain between 500-1000 mg per dosage.
It is recommended that you speak with your doctor to help determine the best dosage for your needs.
Side Effects and Interactions
The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates artichoke as Likely Safe when consumed in dietary amounts, and Possibly Safe when used orally in medicinal amounts.
This supplement has been used for up to 23 consecutive months without causing any significant side effects. [ 5]
There have not been enough studies completed to determine the safety rating for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Usage in medicinal amounts is not recommended in these groups until more research is conducted. [ 8]
Artichoke is generally well tolerated in most people. Mild gastrointestinal side effects have been reported including abdominal pain, gas, nausea, diarrhea, and hunger. [ 5]
Some people might experience allergic reactions. Use extra caution with this supplement if you are allergic to other members of the Asteraceae plant family including dandelion, daisy, marigold, chrysanthemum, zinnia, and more. [ 8]
The NMCD states that there are no known interactions between artichoke leaf and drugs, herbs, supplements, foods, or laboratory tests. [ 5]
Discontinue using this and all other dietary supplements at least two weeks prior to any scheduled surgery.
It is recommended that you speak with your doctor about using artichoke leaf extract supplements to determine whether it is appropriate for you. This is especially important if you have a bile duct obstruction or gallstones as this supplement may worsen these conditions. [ 8]
Baseline of Health Foundation, Artichoke Leaf, Artichoke leaf benefits, Accessed June 4, 2017
Examine, Artichoke Extract, Accessed June 4, 4017
Cynarascolymus – L., Accessed June 5, 2017
MDidea, Theophrastus and the name of Artichoke, Accessed June 5, 2017
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, Artichoke Monograph, Accessed June 4, 2017
Jackson, Frank, Prebiotics vs. Probiotics, Accessed June 5, 2017
American Botanical Council, Herbal Medicine, Artichoke leaf, Accessed June 4, 2017
WebMD, Artichoke, Accessed June 4, 2017
Gói Sản Phẩm Dịch Vụ (Customer Benefit Package
Gói sản phẩm dịch vụ
Gói sản phẩm dịch vụ trong tiếng Anh là customer benefit package, viết tắt là CBP.
Gói sản phẩm dịch vụ được định nghĩa là bộ (hay gói) các sản phẩm hữu hình (goods-content) và các tính chất vô hình của dịch vụ (service-content) mà khách hàng có thể nhận ra, thanh toán, sử dụng và trải nghiệm.
Nói một cách đơn giản, gói sản phẩm dịch vụ là sự kết hợp giữa sản phẩm và dịch vụ nhằm đem lại giá trị và lợi ích cao hơn cho khách hàng.
Phần cốt lõi hay chủ yếu (core or primary) của gói sản phẩm dịch vụ có tính hấp dẫn và dễ thấy nhất, đáp ứng nhu cầu cơ bản và chủ yếu nhất của gói. Ví dụ, phần cốt lõi của một giao dịch tài khoản vãng lai là sự thuận tiện.
Phần ngoại vi (Peripheral) của gói sản phẩm dịch vụ tuy không bắt buộc nhưng thêm vào nhằm hỗ trợ và tăng thêm sự hấp dẫn cho phần cốt lõi. Ví dụ, đối với giao dịch tài khoản vãng lai, phần ngoại vi là các bản in báo cáo tài chính hàng tháng, chữ kí, số checks, thẻ tín dụng đặc biệt và các dịch vụ hỗ trợ thêm như đường dây nóng phục vụ khách hàng 24/7, thanh toán hóa đơn trực tuyến qua mạng Internet,…
Đặc điểm của gói sản phẩm dịch vụ
Một gói sản phẩm dịch vụ minh họa ở hình 1: Các tính năng và đặc điểm trong các vòng tròn nhằm thỏa mãn nhu cầu và mong muốn của khách hàng. Ví dụ, sổ checks, một sản phẩm ngoại vi, đáp ứng nhu cầu và mong muốn của khách hàng về hình ảnh. Thanh toán hóa đơn trực tuyến, một sản phẩm ngoại vi, đáp ứng yêu cầu của khách hàng về sự tiện lợi, và tốc độ thực hiện.
Một sản phẩm hữu hình sẽ không thể được tạo ra nếu không có một số dịch vụ hỗ trợ cho quá trình sản xuất nó và đưa nó đến tay người tiêu dùng. Một hàng hóa không bán được giá cao nếu không có các dịch vụ hỗ trợ. Ví dụ, sản xuất thật nhiều xe hơi ở nơi mà cung vượt quá cầu sẽ chảng có mấy giá trị trừ phi nó được vận chuyền đến nơi cần mua nó.
Khi vẽ một CBP không nên nhầm lẫn pha trộn các đặc tính của CBP với nhu cầu và mong muốn của khách hàng trên biểu đồ. Ví dụ, chìa khóa điện tử mở cửa phòng khách sạn là đặc tính của CBP trong khi nhu cầu và mong muốn của khách hàng là sự an toàn.
Kích thước của các vòng tròn khuôn mẫu CBP là dấu hiệu mức độ quan trọng tương đối của sản phẩm và dịch vụ. Trong một số trường hợp, thành phần sản phẩm và dịch vụ của khuôn mẫu CBP là tương đương nhau.
Thường khi kết hợp thành một gói sản phẩm dịch vụ thì thường được bán với một giá thấp hơn là bán riêng lẻ nên có lợi hơn cho khách hàng. Một liên minh giữa các khách sạn và hãng hàng không cung ứng một dịch vụ trọn gói nghỉ hè thường có giá ưu đãi hơn là đặt riêng lẻ.
Khuôn mẫu CBP là cách thức để giải thích và hình dung về sự kết hợp sản phẩm và dịch vụ trong một gói sản phẩm dịch vụ khi giới thiệu rộng rãi với công chúng. Đây là yếu tố đầu vào chủ yếu để thiết kế qui trình chính xác tạo ra “một trải nghiệm mơ ước và đáng nhớ” nơi khách hàng.
Trong hầu hết các trường hợp, rất nhiều sản phẩm và dịch vụ là một hỗn hợp mà thành phần vừa là sản phẩm vừa là dịch vụ.
Hình 2 là một dải phân định thành phần bao gồm nhiều loại hàng hóa và dịch vụ khác nhau. Kem đánh răng, ví dụ như, với thành phần chủ yếu chủ yếu của sản phẩm, khi bạn mua sắm, có thể bạn cũng được hỗ trợ thêm một số dịch vụ từ trung tâm điện thoại phục vụ khách hàng.
Lưu ý là không thể tùy ý tạo một gói sản phẩm dịch vụ mà điều quan trọng là gói sản phẩm dịch vụ phải tạo ra sự cảm nhận đáng nhớ và giá trị cho khách hàng.
(Theo Quản trị dịch vụ, NXB Tài chính)
Bilberry Extract Supplement Uses, Benefits, Dosages &Amp; Side Effects
This supplement is most commonly used for eye/vision disorders, improving eyesight, cardiovascular conditions, UTIs (urinary tract infections), diabetes mellitus, hemorrhoids, and diarrhea.
Its medicinal usage began in the 12th century, when Hildegard of Bingen (Saint Hildegard) asserted its usefulness in inducing menstruation. Since then, it has been used for numerous conditions – including typhoid fever, kidney stones, gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, and many others. [ 1][ 2]
Bilberry has a long history in traditional medicine and has been used for a variety of conditions for hundreds of years. There is some clinical evidence that supports using bilberry extract for certain health conditions.
More large scale, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials are still needed to confirm the results of smaller studies and determine the therapeutic efficacy of bilberry extract for its proposed uses.
The most common uses for this supplement, research study results, safety, side effects, and dosage information will be discussed in detail in this article.
Bilberry Extract Uses
Bilberry extract supplements are most commonly sourced from a low-growing shrub called Vaccinium myrtillus. However, the term “bilberry” can refer to any of several Eurasian species in the Vaccinium genus of the Ericaceae botanical family.
Bilberries are sometimes called European blueberries; however, while botanically related to blueberries, they are not interchangeable with them. Other relatives include huckleberry and cranberry. [ 2]
Bilberry shrubs produce small purple/black berries with red flesh. As a food, bilberries are commonly used in making jams, jellies, pies, and chutneys. [ 2]
According to WebMD, both the berries and the leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus are used to make natural medicines. [ 3] However, bilberry fruit extract is more commonly used than leaf extract.
Some people use this supplement for insufficient venous blood flow, varicose veins, chest pain (angina), and “clogged” arteries (atherosclerosis). [ 3]
Bilberry is also used for osteoporosis, gout, haemorrhoids, and skin infections. It is also sometimes used inside the mouth and throat for soreness associated with inflammation of mucous membranes. [ 3]
The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (NMCD) states that bilberry extract is also used for: [ 4]
Improving visual acuity, including night vision
CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome)
Degenerative retinal conditions
Cataracts (clouded eye lens)
The NMCD rates Bilberry extract as Possibly Effective for chronic venous insufficiency and retinopathy (disease of the retina).
The therapeutic efficacy of this supplement is being studied for many other conditions, including dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), asthenopia (eye strain), glaucoma, prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance), and IBS (irritable bowel syndrome). [ 4]
Bilberry is also being studied for possible effects in weight loss, myopia (nearsightedness), metabolic syndrome, and ulcerative colitis. [ 4]
While some preliminary clinical trials have been done, more research is needed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of bilberry for these conditions. At this time the FDA has not approved bilberry as a drug to prevent or treat any conditions.
In the next section, some of the proposed mechanisms of action for bilberry extract are discussed.
How Does Bilberry Extract Work in the Body?
Anthocyanins are also called anthocyanosides. In in vitro, animal, and human research studies these plant chemicals have been shown to be potent antioxidants. They are commonly referred to as “super-antioxidants”.
All antioxidants help the body to combat inflammation, infection, and aging by reducing the production of and/or removing free radicals. Free radicals are reactive oxygen compounds created naturally in the body. However the build-up of these compounds can cause cellular damage.
According to ConsumerLab, the anthocyanins in bilberry extract might be beneficial for the retinas. The retina is the light sensitive layer on the back of the eyeball that triggers nerve impulses through the optic nerve to the brain to create visual perception.
Anthocyanins may also help to keep blood vessel walls strong, decrease systemic swelling (inflammation), and preserve collagen-containing tissues such as cartilage, tendon and ligament. [ 2]
The anthocyanins specific to bilberry are structurally similar to OPCs (oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes) found in pine bark and grape seed. Because of this, bilberry extracts are recommended for similar uses including for varicose veins, support during surgery, and easy bruising. [ 2]
ConsumerLab says that bilberry leaf extract might be beneficial for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Animal studies have shown bilberry leaf to help normalize blood-glucose levels and to reduce the amount of fatty acids called triglycerides in the blood. [ 2]
NMCD states that some anthocyanins in bilberry fruit and leaf extracts include “cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, malvidin, and others.” [ 4]
NMCD states that every 100 grams of bilberry fruit contains between 300 to 700 mg of anthocyanins. The actual content of samples will vary due to several factors including growth region, soil quality, and hydration. [ 4] Bilberry extracts are typically standardized to 25% anthocyanin content.
According to the NMCD, some of the effects of anthocyanins include: [ 4]
Helping to facilitate the formation of interstitial fluid
Reducing glomerular basement membrane thickness
Helping to redistribute microvascular blood flow
Increasing production of glycosaminoglycans
Decreasing vascular permeability
Some preliminary research suggests that bilberry may also induce antiulcer, gastroprotective, and antiedema effects. [ 4]
The extract is believed to help liver and kidney function due to its antioxidant effects. It helps to scavenge free radicals from the body and to reduce the peroxidation of lipids (fats). [ 4]
According to WebMD, bilberry extract also contains compounds called tannins. Often referred to as tannic acids, tannins are water-soluble polyphenols. [ 3]
The University of Memphis reports that in animal studies tannins are believed to reduce feed intake, modulate growth, increase the efficiency of feed, upregulate energy synthesis, and enhance protein digestibility. [ 5]
WebMD states that bilberry tannins might help improve diarrhea, mouth/throat irritation, and swelling. It might also help to lower LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol), modulate blood-sugar levels, and improve circulation in those with diabetes. [ 3]
Bilberry extract also contains a well-known polyphenol called resveratrol, and a flavonoid called quercetin. Bilberry also contains trace amounts of chromium which has been found to improve blood sugar regulation. [ 4]
Cooking bilberry fruit may significantly reduce its nutritional value. For instance, heating bilberries at 375 degrees F for 18 minutes reduces resveratrol content by between 17% and 46%. [ 4]
Bilberry for Eye Health
Bilberry extracts are most commonly taken for supporting eye health as well as various eye conditions. Some eye conditions that this supplement is used for include retinopathy, night vision, asthenopia, glaucoma, intraocular pressure (pressure within the eye), and myopia (nearsightedness).
The following are some of the most common eye conditions that people take this extract for, as well as any available research study information on efficacy.
As described before, the retina is a layer of light-sensitive cells on the back of the eyeball that transmits impulses from the optic nerve to the brain to help form visual images. Retinopathy is a retinal disease that causes impaired or lost vision.
Retinopathy is typically caused by abnormal blood flow to the retina, which causes damage and vision loss. It is most commonly seen in people with hypertension (high blood pressure) or diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy is thought to affect up to 80% of diabetics who have had diabetes for 20 or more years.
The NMCD has rated bilberry fruit extract as Possibly Effective for retinopathy, especially when it results from diabetes mellitus or hypertension. [ 4]
One double-blind placebo-controlled study examined the effects of using bilberry extract in people with diabetic or hypertensive retinopathy. Significant improvements to retinal lesions were seen in the treatment group.
In clinical studies that explored bilberry’s effects on retinopathy, preparations containing 25% bioflavonoid complex anthocyanins were used. [ 4] While the research on using this supplement for retinopathy is promising, more research is still needed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of bilberry extract for this purpose.
If you have retinopathy and are interested in taking bilberry extract, it is best to discuss it with your optometrist.
British pilots in WWII claimed that eating bilberry jam before night flights improved their night vision. People continue to use it for this purpose, however there is not much reliable research available that demonstrates efficacy at this time.
Two studies from the 1960s showed that bilberry temporarily improved night vision, but the effect did not persist with continued use. However, these trials were not double-blind, which may have introduced bias into the results.
One double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that a single dose of extract improved visual response for 2 hours after it was taken. However three other double-blind placebo-controlled crossover studies found no short or long term improvements to night vision when using bilberry.
The NMCD states that much of the research on bilberry for night vision is of poor quality or small sample size. Most of the reliable research that has been completed does not seem to support using bilberry to improve night vision and it is rated as Possibly Ineffective for this purpose. [ 4]
Asthenopia is the medical term for eye strain and includes symptoms such as fatigue, blurred vision, headaches, blurred vision, and occasionally double vision.
One preliminary research study found that taking 53 mg bilberry anthocyanins, along with Omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil and lutein, for 4 weeks, reduced lower back pain, stiffness, stuffiness, and dry eyes in patients with asthenopia, relative to placebo controls. [ 4] If these results are due to bilberry alone are confounded with the other supplements used however.
Another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on eye fatigue gave patients bilberry extract capsules or a placebo alone. It was observed that eye fatigue, eye pain, eye heaviness, and foreign body sensation (feeling of something on the eye) was reduced more in the bilberry group then the placebo group.
The results from these studies are promising, however more research is still needed to prove the therapeutic efficacy of bilberry extract for asthenopia.
It is recommended that you speak with your optometrist to help diagnose asthenopia and a recommended treatment plan before you begin taking bilberry for eye strain symptoms.
Additional Bilberry Extract Uses
While bilberry extract is most commonly used for issues related to vision and the eyes, it also is used for various other conditions. Most commonly it has been used for chronic venous insufficiency, dysmenorrhea, diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ulcerative colitis, and weight loss.
At this time, few clinical trials have been done testing this extract for these purposes. The NCCIH states, “We have very few high-quality clinical trials (studies in people) of bilberry supplements.” [ 1]
Bilberry extract has been rated by the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database as Possibly Effective for chronic venous insufficiency.
While there have been some promising research results in preliminary trials, currently there is not enough evidence for the NMCD to rate the efficacy of this supplement in these other health conditions.
More research trials are still needed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of bilberry for these conditions. Bilberry extract has not been approved by the FDA as a drug to prevent or treat any conditions.
Following are some of the available clinical data concerning bilberry’s effects in specific health conditions.
Chronic venous insufficiency
Bilberry extract is rated Possibly Effective for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). This condition is marked by dysfunctional venous walls, and/or vein valves. [ 4]
Especially in the legs, this venous wall and/or vein valve dysfunction can causes stasis, which is the pooling of blood in the veins. Blood that pools in veins is unable to recirculate to the heart to be oxygenated.
Preliminary research in humans suggests that taking 173 mg/day doses of a specific bilberry extract, for 30 days, reduces chronic venous insufficiency symptoms relative to a placebo. [ 4]
Other research suggests that taking 100-480 mg/day doses of bilberry anthocyanins improves burning, pain, edema (abnormal fluid accumulation), and bruising commonly associated with CVI. [ 4]
If you have CVI and are interested in taking this extract, then speak with your doctor first. Your doctor will be able to determine if there could be any interactions with current medications or supplements that you take, and help determine safety and proper dosage.
Dysmenorrhea is severe pain associated with menstruation that is typically more intense than the normal pain and discomfort of menstruation. The pain and cramping associated with dysmenorrhea typically is not relieved with over-the-counter pain medication.
Preliminary evidence suggests that a specific bilberry extract product called Tegens may improve some common symptoms of dysmenorrhea. [ 4]
Tegens 160 mg taken two times daily starting 3 days before menses, and continuing for 8 days, for a minimum of two menstrual cycles, was seen to: [ 4]
Reduce lumbosacral (lower back) pain
Reduce breast pain
Reduce pelvic pain
Nausea, vomiting, and headache were also reduced in subjects taking Tegens compared to those who recieved a placebo agent.
While these results are promising, it is only one study, and more research is still needed to prove the therapeutic efficacy of bilberry for dysmenorrhea.
In a preliminary clinical trial, a specific bilberry extract significantly decreased plasma glucose levels relative to a placebo. [ 4]
In this trial, patients with type 2 diabetes took 470 mg/day doses of Mirtoselect before participating in oral glucose tolerance tests. [ 4]
In another study, patients with type 2 diabetes who were resistant to standard diabetes medications were given bilberry extract in addition to their standard treatment. Compared to patients who received standard treatment and a placebo, the patients given the extract had significant sreductions in fasting blood glucose levels and glucose levels after eating.
More research is still required to determine the efficacy of bilberry extract for diabetes. If you have diabetes and are interested in trying this dietary supplement then you should discuss it with your endocrinologist.
In one preliminary clinical trial, consumption of 100 grams of whole bilberries each day, for 33-35 days, was seen to decrease waist circumference and bodyweight in overweight and obese women, compared to pre-treatment levels. [ 4]
More research is still needed to determine what effects bilberry may have on weight loss, or with maintaining healthy weight levels once they are achieved.
As with any supplement taken for weight loss, it is always recommended to be used as part of a lifestyle that includes a healthy diet and exercise to achieve optimal results.
Bilberry Extract Supplements
NCCIH states that bilberry extract supplements are available as tablets, capsules, powders, liquid drops, and whole plant parts (berries and leaves). [ 1]
Whole berries and leaves of bilberry are used commonly to brew teas and to make infusions and tinctures.
ConsumerLab reports that there because of the high cost of pure bilberry extract there is a growing concern over the authenticity of bilberry extract products on the market. Some products may not contain bilberry at all, or are mixed with less expensive components which contain similar anthocyanins as bilberry.
Therefore ConsumerLab says that is important to look for authentic bilberry products and do your research to make sure they contain the amount of bilberry and anthocyanins they are labelled to contain.
It is also recommended to shop for supplements that are organic, non-GMO, and free of contaminants such as lead and other heavy metals.
It is important to do your research before buying bilberry extract supplements. Ask for proof of GMP certifications from manufacturers and COAs on all batches of product. Read user reviews online to determine other users’ experiences with the company and product. Only do business with established and trusted manufacturers. [ 4]
Bilberry Extract Dosage
Bilberry extracts are typically standardized to 25% anthocyanin content, although sometimes this can be higher.
According to ConsumerLab, the commonly recommended dosage is between 120 mg and 240 mg of bilberry extract standardized to contain 25% anthocyanins, taken twice daily. [ 2]
Some other dosages that have been used in research studies include:
Chronic venous insufficiency:480 mg daily for up to 6 months
Dysmenorrhea:160 mg twice daily, start 3 days before period for 8 days
Diabetic retinopathy:160 mg twice daily for a month
Bilberry Extract Side Effects
The Natural Medicines Conprehensive Database has rated bilberry as Likely Safe when used orally and appropriately in amounts found in food. Bilberry has been give Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) status by the FDA in the USA.
ConsumerLab states that bilberry is a natural plant food source, and it is known to be quite safe for most healthy people, even in large quantities. [ 2]
The NMCD has rated bilberry extract as Possibly Safe when used orally and appropriately in medicinal amounts. Various clinical trials have used this fruit extract safely for up to a year.
The safety of bilberry in pregnancy or breastfeeding has not been established. Its safety has also not been established in young children – or in those with severe liver and/or kidney disease. [ 2]
Some evidence suggests that bilberry leaf extracts may affect blood-glucose levels. If you are considering using a leaf extract it is recommended that you speak with your doctor about possible interactions and appropriate dosages. This is especially important if you have diabetes and are taking any blood-sugar lowering medications. [ 2]
Bilberry Extract Interactions
According to the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMM), there is concern for possible interactions between bilberry extracts and certain medications and herbal supplements. [ 6]
Be careful if using this extract in combination with anticoagulant medications used to thin the blood, including aspirin. In theory, anthocyanins in bilberry may reduce clotting ability. This could increase the risks for bleeding and bruising. [ 6]
Bilberry extract seems to lower blood sugar, but more research is needed to be sure. If it does, it could intensify the effects and/or side effects of any medications used to control blood glucose levels.
This applies to all antidiabetic medications, and also to herbal supplements with hypoglycemic potentials. These include garlic, ginger, fenugreek, turmeric, ginseng, angelica, clove, and more.
Before beginning to take any herbal supplements it is always recommended to speak with your doctor, especially if you have any pre-existing conditions. Your doctor will be able to determine if bilberry extract is right for your needs, as well as appropriate dosages and any potential interactions.
Article last updated on: July 4th, 2018 by Nootriment
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